Online hate speech is becoming more and more widespread in Lithuania and until recently, comments like, “The world needs Hitler again to do the cleansing job,” which was posted on a website called Delfi, or “Expel dirty Roma people out of Lithuania” would have gone unheeded by criminal justice.
“Although the Lithuanian Criminal Codex includes sufficient law provisions to prosecute instigators of hate and enmity, these provisions have been largely ignored by criminal judges,” Vitoldas Maslauskas, former Vilnius County prosecutor, said last month.
Most law enforcement officials, Maslauskas said, ranging from high-level prosecutors to ordinary investigators, turn a blind eye to the practice of web hate speech for one simple reason: Criminal judges are swamped under real-life infringements and don’t have time to chase down Internet bashers who, as a result, go untouched online.
Combatting Hate Speech
One non-governmental organization though, the Tolerant Youth Association (TJA), is slowly but surely helping to harness the hate speech, with and without help from criminal justice.
“Although we have been actively carrying out various tolerance-inducing projects since the establishment of our association in 2005, it is only in recent years that we have been fighting against the practice of online hate speech,” said Arturas Rudomanskis, chairman of TJA.
The association has initiated 58 pre-trial investigations this year into cases instigating hate and enmity: “It represents a rise of nearly double compared to last year’s figure of 30-plus-something cases,” Rudomanskis said.
“Until last year, we would pinpoint online hate-mongers to prosecutors. This year, however, we changed our tactics by creating an autonomous system allowing people to file complaints against online bashers directly to the prosecutor’s office. This has undoubtedly worked out well, as conscious people extensively report hate cases to prosecutors,” Rudomanskis said.
Thanks to the efforts of the Tolerant Youth Association, the online slanderers mentioned at the beginning of this article have been traced, prosecuted and punished.
Only a few years ago, it is likely that they would have escaped the law.
Bringing online slanderers to justice
The man instigating hate against Roma people turned out to be a 28-year-old manager of a company in the city of Utena in northeast Lithuania.
The District Court of Utena ruled that the man incited hate against Roma people and instigated to discriminate against them on the basis of their ethnicity. In his affidavit, the manager admitted the wrongdoing and justified his act by arguing that he had only voiced his opinion. He received a fine of LTL 1,300, which is roughly the equivalent of $535.
In such cases, local courts often seize the offenders’ computers as the tools of crime. However, the Utena District Court decided not to confiscate the manager’s computer.
A 36-year-old inhabitant of the town of Anyksciai, who had urged to have “all gays” slain in an online response to an article about the first-ever Lithuanian gay pride parade, whimpered at the District Court of Anyksciai, explaining that he had merely intended to express his discontent against the gay march.
The judge was not impressed and punished him with a fine of nearly 400 euros ($570). District prosecutor Vigandas Jurevicius admitted the case was the first of its kind in his career.
“I launched the investigation following a complaint by the Tolerant Youth Association. To be honest, had it not been for the complaint, I would have not sought prosecution, as it is simply impossible to keep track of the post flow on the Internet,” the prosecutor acknowledged.
Just starting the fight
In the meantime, TJA chairman Arturas Rudomanskis notes that the number of Internet surfers who report online slanderers is increasing and calls for a “more substantial” involvement of Lithuanian criminal justices against online hate speech.
“Actually, we have just started the fight,” he said. “We are far away from seeing any major breakthrough just yet. However, I see much more support in Lithuanian society and in the media for online perpetrators of hate to be addressed in full force by the law.”
According to Rudomanskis, online hate speech cases that reach court break down as follows: 70 percent of the cases are related to hate against homosexuals, and the rest is equally split between anti-Semitic and xenophobic abuse.
“Obviously, Lithuania remains one of the most homophobic countries in the European Union. This is directly reflected in Internet posts,” Rudomanskis said.
TJA has succeeded in shutting down a gay hate-laden website set up by a member of an ultranationalist Lithuanian organization, as well as its Facebook page filled with anti-gay slurs.
The role of journalists in tackling online hate
“We have to admit that there are many angry people in Lithuania,” said Zita Zamzickiene, the Lithuanian ombudsman for Journalism Ethics. “This is partly due to our recent heritage that goes back to the Soviet era. Homosexuals and ethnic minorities, unfortunately, fall in the category of people who most often become a punching bag. We can tackle the intolerance by educating our people and carrying out prevention programs.”
Obviously, Lithuanian journalists can play a key role in curbing Internet slanderers by educating the population and promoting universal human values such as tolerance. For a small country like Lithuania that is still suffering from the post-Soviet syndrome, it may be an issue of utmost priority.
Linas Jegelevicius, 40, Lithuanian, obtained his master’s degree in journalism at the Vilnius University Institute of Journalism. Between 1994 and 2004, he lived in New York and Miami, where he contributed to the Miami newspaper Wire. From 2001 until 2003, he edited and published his own newspaper, South Beach AXIS. Jegelevicius currently works as an editor for the regional newspaper Palangos tiltas, in the resort town of Palanga in the west of Lithuania. He also contributes as a freelance journalist to several English language publications, including The Baltic Times and Ooskanews.com. He has published two books, and his interests include politics, economics, journalism, literature, the English language (particularly urban English), psychology, traveling and human rights.
This story was originally published by the European Journalism Centre, an independent non-profit institute dedicated to the highest standards in journalism, primarily through the further training of journalists and media professionals. Follow @ejcnet for Twitter updates, join us on Facebook and on the EJC Online Journalism Community.